For the final research questions, we don’t make a distinction between countries, but we make a distinction between clinicians. As a response to the unwanted influence of past DSM editions, French psychiatrists and psychologists have since developed some of their own classification systems, such as the. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. While cross-sectional research can be exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory, it is most consistent with a descriptive approach (Neumann, 2014, p 44). The preliminary diagnosis was confirmed through a nasal swab culture. But for this purpose, relevant stakeholders first need to be identified. In a similar manner as we will do for the individual countries, we will also assess for each clinical discipline separately, what response was most frequently given per indicator on the 7-point Likert scale. Consequently, this lack of uniformity in the usage of classification systems between France, Germany and the Netherlands hampers comparative evaluation. Internal validity will be ensured by carefully monitoring all procedural steps of the study, in an effort to minimize bias. Using these sum scores, we will conduct two GLM-univariate analyses (Ellis, 2003). In this context, according to Durkheim, the main types of suicide are the following four (as they are presented in Figure 1 below): a) Anomic suicide, b) Fatalistic suicide, c) Altruistic suicide and d) Egoistic suicide. Measurement validity refers to the notion that a test truly measures what it purports to measure, to the extent that inferences made from it are appropriate, meaningful and useful (Gregory, 2011). Ben-Zeev, D., Young, M.A., & Corrigan, P.W. Figure 2. (n.d.). Background document. (2010). (2012). The type of emergency described in the above case is an, ...on hand washing [2 marks] Within 30 days after randomization Within 60 days after randomization Within 180 days after randomization At the age of 3 years QUESTION 4 (8 marks) Below is a graphical summary of the results of a meta analysis by Rahman et al which was published in the International Journal of. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Widespread usage of a classification system increases the uniformity in the way disorders are defined, consequently adding a dimension of objectivity and homogeneity in the way patients are being diagnosed. By juxtaposing the models, one will be able to quickly compare the countries in terms of which indicators/determinants play a role in the adoption or rejection of the DSM-5, and also how strong the influence of each of those indicators is. (2004) have to be specified, altered or split into multiple new determinants to reflect the strong DSM-5 focus of our own model. Regier, D.A., Kuhl, E.A., & Kupfer, D.J. In the eventual model(s), which will be further developed after data has been gathered and analysed, the sizes of the arrows will vary (small, medium and large) and so will the colours of the arrows (red, green and white). The Asian Flu claimed 70,000 people’s lives in 1957. – RQ4. Does feminism mean equal opportunities for men, as we… Payne, J.M., France, K.E., Henley, N., D’Antoine, H.A., Bartu, A.E., Elliot, E.J., & Bower, C. (2011). (2014). the innovation being relevant for task performance. A research paper proposal template breaks down all the necessary sections of the proposal into segments. As a response to the unwanted influence of past DSM editions, French psychiatrists and psychologists have since developed some of their own classification systems, such as the ‘Classification Française des Troubles Mentaux de L’Enfant et de L’Adolescent’ (CFTMEA) (Wedge, 2012). Epidemiology Case Study Caridad Center in Boynton Beach, Florida, is visited yearly by 7,000 low income families. essay on current topics 2020 essay on use of social media in educationAnother word for a good research paper. All researchers will declare to have no conflicting interests. 3. The aforementioned steps can all contribute towards the minimization of non-response bias (Penwarden, 2013). For each country separately, we will assess per indicator what response was most frequently given on the 7-point Likert scale. Figure 1 summarizes how classification systems, clinical diagnoses, databases and monitoring tools, and the open method of coordination relate to each other in the field of mental health. However, adherence to adequate, systematic, valid and reliable ways of measuring these health related indicators is a prerequisite to allow for a reasonable and meaningful degree of comparison (Smith, Mossialos & Papanicolas, 2008). We aim to include a large and representative sample of clinicians, to ensure a certain degree of generalizability when making claims on the tendencies to adopt or reject the DSM-5 on a country level. According to the latest numbers by the International Diabetes Federation, 382 million people worldwide have diabetes (IDF, 2014). Where some would label the DSM-5 as a promising innovation to classify mental disorders (McCarron, 2013), others are opposed to using the DSM-5 altogether (Frances, 2013), arguing that it contributes to the medicalization of normal behaviour (Spence, 2012) as well as to the stigmatization of people with mental disorders (Ben-Zeev, Young & Corrigan, 2010). This could lead to clinical psychologists being less prone to adopt the DSM-5 than psychiatrists, the latter group generally having less difficulties to adopt a more biologically oriented model as it corresponds more with their educational background (Derksen, 2012). Consequences of survey nonresponse. PG Research Prospectus 2008 (DD/ph th18 Feb) 1 Sample Research Proposals You will find here two examples of proposals for postgraduate research from the Department of Social Policy and Criminology. What are the differences between clinicians of various clinical disciplines in their overall tendency to adopt or reject the DSM-5? Czabanowska, K. (18 September 2014). Table 2 provides more information on the remaining statistical procedures that will be used to answer the two final research questions. Additional to the 21 statements which represent our indicators, we will inquire about the participants’ professional backgrounds (clinical discipline) and ask participants in which country they ply their trade. It is important to elaborate to some extent on the controversy that surrounds the DSM-5. For instance, some clinical psychologists have argued that past DSM-editions, and also the DSM-5, overemphasize the medical model and the biological components in the etiology of mental disorders at the expense of psychological and social components (Derksen, 2012; Zur & Nordmarken, 2013). It is also relevant to students who are applying to external bodies for postgraduate research funding. Throughout the youth, a person’s body uses these minerals to produce bones. Free Epidemiology research paper samples online are 100% plagiarized!!! It is the most common type of bone disease. 2. Where possible, we will approach these clinicians with the assistance of the official health care professional registries, such as the BIG-registry in the Netherlands (Ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport, n.d.). Several important topics in public health ethics have also been highlighted. How has racism continued to manifest itself in America? ...usible, maintaining however, a reservation on the logic of “waterborne” diseases. (2012a). Research Proposal Sample 2: PhD research proposal John Smith, Autumn 2009 Proposed supervisor: Hugh Grant Computer support of creativity in music compositionfor cinema and television Overview My research will be at the junction of three areas: creativity support, musical composition and human-computer interaction. I. Unit … Since the DSM-5 can be described as a novel way of improving administrative efficiency in health systems, it also meets the definition of an innovation (Greenhalgh, Robert, Macfarlane, Bate & Kyriakidou, 2004). Theses/Dissertations from 2017 PDF. Sample research question • Interest: Can a vegetarian diet reduce cardiovascular disease? This clear conceptualization is needed to formulate the statements that will be used in the survey. Alternatively, we will approach participants through the national professional associations of the various disciplines. It is important to involve all relevant stakeholders in such an endeavour, since stakeholders need to be engaged from the outset of a project to ensure ownership and partnerships for effective action. Psychiatry’s integration with medicine: The role of DSM-5. This valuable process of comparison is operationalized by agreeing on indicators that reflect, or are related to, the health status of a population. – RQ5. As a research team, our goal is not to advocate usage of the DSM-5, nor do we seek to promote its diffusion and adoption across Europe. That is why we use the most frequently given answers on the 7-point Likert scale to create the country profiles. “Epidemiology Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1517850-epidemiology. Figure 5. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Table 1 shows which of the determinants of Greenhalgh et al.’s (2004) model we will adopt and how we will transform them into new indicators for our DSM-5 model. This is 100% legal. Since each indicator is explicitly meant to measure a separate construct, the concepts of internal consistency and split-half reliability (Gregory, 2011) don’t apply. Anderson, Bryan (2017), Modeling human exposure to Babesia spp. The knowledge obtained from our study has an important role to play in guiding the debate on how to classify mental disorders, with the eventual public health oriented goal in mind of working towards a uniform classification system on a European level. For instance, where Greenhalgh et al. Success refers to whether the project objectives have been achieved, and quality refers to whether the needs of the stakeholders have been met (CHAFEA, 2012b). Works Cited What are the differences between clinicians in France, Germany and the Netherlands in their overall tendency to adopt or reject the DSM-5? A large scale study in the United States found distinct differences in DSM-5 adoption rates between different groups of clinicians (Cassels, 2014). – RQ5. (2004). We will apply a purposive sampling method (Neumann, 2014) that aims to include as many eligible clinicians as possible by utilising aforementioned registries and associations. We aim to publish the results of our study in the form of a scientific article in the ‘European Journal of Public Health’. They both give good indication of the sorts of things that need to be included. The size of the arrow will illustrate the strength of the effect (the larger the arrow, the stronger that indicator’s influence on the decision to adopt or reject the DSM-5), while the colour will illustrate the direction of the effect (a green arrow signals that an indicator contributes to adoption, and a red arrow signals it contributes to rejection). An objective approach by the research team throughout the different stages of the study is a necessity to safeguard the truthfulness of the study’s outcomes. Examples of epidemiology research paper topics in this category include: 1. Table 1. They are the ones that potentially have to work with it and best capable of assessing what consequences DSM-5 usage will have for every day practice and for patient welfare. Calcium and phosphate are two minerals that are essential for normal bone formation. The outcomes of the current study can also guide the debate on what role the DSM-5 should play in realizing a uniform classification system for mental disorders in Europe. PubMed Health (2011) defined osteoporosis as the thinning of bone tissue and the loss of bone density over time. Feel free to contact us with any suggestions, remarks or questions you might have. To answer these questions, we first refer to Neumann (2014, p 234): “Likert scale measures are at the ordinal level of measurement because responses indicate only a ranking. Even though we assign numerical values to the answers on our Likert scale, in essence they still represent ordinal values and have to be treated accordingly, meaning we cannot simply apply a quantitative analysis in which we treat the numerical values as continuous variables (Gregory, 2011). Search Funded PhD Projects, Programs & Scholarships in Public Health & Epidemiology, research proposal form. The main aim of our study will be to evaluate what factors contribute towards the adoption and rejection of the DSM-5 amongst clinicians in three European countries, namely France, Germany and the Netherlands. (2013). – RQ4. With this verification number, the participant can access an online survey, which can be filled in and submitted through a dedicated website which we will set up for the purposes of the current study. The outcomes of our study can contribute towards creating an understanding of what clinicians in France, Germany and the Netherlands seek in a classification system for mental disorders, and to what extent the DSM-5 fits these criteria. Attention to ethical issues can facilitate the effective planning and conduct of epidemiological studies and the evaluation of public health programs. The Avian flu virus is a type A influenza virus. Deutsches Institut für Medizinische Dokumentation und Information. In France, how strongly do specific indicators contribute towards either the rejection or adoption of the DSM-5 amongst clinicians? Collaboration between the authors and developers of the ICD and DSM has led to more overlap in terminology and diagnostic descriptions over the years (Ginter, 2014). Per indicator, the most frequently given response will be expressed as an arrow, and incorporated in the individual country models as illustrated in section 2.2 of this research proposal. Only when we combine several ranked items, we get a more comprehensive multiple indicator measurement.” This means that when we sum up the 21 numerical scores on the Likert scales, we can reasonably treat the outcome of this summation as a continuous variable, which can be subjected to statistical analysis. The forum can also facilitate the further development of ideas for future research and the creation of research alliances. This can result in brittle, fragile bones that are more prone to fractures, even without injury. In total our model incorporates 21 determinants. Cohort studies can either be prospective or retrospective and can be used to calculate the incidence of a disease and the relative risk of developing a disease. And though we acknowledge the fact that the DSM-5, just like previous editions, is still very much contested (Frances, 2013; Lane, 2013; Nemeroff et al., 2013), one could substantiate the claim that the DSM-5 can be seen as a promising innovation for bringing uniformity in the classification of mental disorders on a European level. This includes mental health care professionals with backgrounds in clinical psychology and psychiatry, but also primary care physicians, paediatricians, occupational therapists, neurologists, social workers and psychiatric nurses (APA, 2014; Cassels, 2014; Schmitz, Kruse, Heckrath, Alberti & Tress, 1999). Social epidemiology- The economics and social determines of a population 5. And through comparative evaluation, both between and within countries, one can produce scientific knowledge about the causes of ill-health and consequently develop more effective methods to cure disease, care for the sick and promote health (Czabanowska, 2014). Date: 11-03-2015 3. All the participants of our study will receive a letter or e-mail, thanking them for their participation and providing them with a universal resource locator (URL) leading to the research article on www.europeanpublichealth.com. Affiliation: Maastricht University Type A influenza viruses can be found in humans, birds, and other mammals. DSM-V and the stigma of mental illness. The model we developed to compare France, Germany and the Netherlands, can similarly be used as a way to compare clinicians of various disciplines in terms of which indicators play a role in their decision to adopt or reject the DSM-5, and also how strong the influence of each of those indicators is. The impact of the eventual non-response rates on potential non-response bias will be assessed using the findings of Peytchev (2013) and Groves & Peytcheva (2008). What are the differences between clinicians of various clinical disciplines in the influence specific indicators have on adopting or rejecting the DSM-5? By incorporating a 7 point Likert scale to measure participants’ tendencies to adopt or reject the DSM-5, we deem that an adequate level of measurement precision will be obtained. • Research question: Does an entirely plant- ... Clinical Epidemiology: the essentials. Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: systematic review and recommendations. As stated before, the responses on the Likert scale will be given a numerical value, varying from a score of 0 (meaning that participants stated that this indicator strongly contributes to their tendency to reject the DSM-5) to a score of 6 (meaning that participants stated that this indicator strongly contributes to their tendency to adopt the DSM-5). By the time of the second cholera epidemic however, Farr has become one of the strongest supporters of Snow’s “waterborne” theory. We narrow the scope of the current study by not incorporating all the determinants Greenhalgh et al. (2004) hypothesized as having a potential influence on the adoption decision. However, deciding on what statements to use to capture the essence of each indicator will be subjected to a more thorough evaluation by a multilingual research team. Greenhalgh, T., Robert, G., Macfarlane, F., Bate, P., & Kyriakidou, O. DG Sante, Chafea and the third EU Health Programme, The internal market and free movement of goods. One of the main concerns however from a public health perspective, is the fact that despite harmonization attempts, the criteria for various mental disorders still differ significantly between the DSM and ICD (First, 2009), which is something that greatly jeopardizes the comparability of health data when more than one designated classification system is used. – RQ4. Figure 6. The Hong Kong Flu in 1968 killed 34, 000 people (Howard, 2007). And that is why these clinicians are also the ones that will be included as participants in the current study. May 2015 International Journal of Current Research 7(5):16525-16529 The second purpose is to engage and unite various stakeholders, to obtain feedback from them while creating a basis for dialogue and further research. ... Molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus illness in children and adults in Seattle, WA over five seasons: Wald, Anna: Samantha Rice Usually, the loss occurs gradually... Silent... ...idemiologists involve themselves in study design, data collection, statistical analysis of the data collected, and interpretation of the results, as well as the distribution of the results. This leaves us with two remaining research questions to answer: – RQ1. Table 2. Various points of criticism on past editions of the DSM were taken into account and addressed in the development process (Nemeroff et al., 2013), and through close collaboration with representatives of the WHO (responsible for the ICD-10), the development team of the DSM-5 aimed to create a handbook that represents the best of both worlds, implementing the perceived favourable characteristics of the ICD-classification system, while preserving the strengths of past DSM-editions (Ginter, 2014; Regier, Kuhl & Kupfer, 2013). Approval to conduct the current study will be sought from relevant ethics committees in France, Germany and the Netherlands separately. It can be established through the minimization of possible confounding variables and biases (Gregory, 2011). (2010). dissertation littã©raire madame bovaryCreative writing degrees london.Essay pte academic. An overview of the GLM-univariate analyses to be conducted. Is there any relationship between politics, religion, and society? We use research proposals to match you with your supervisor or supervisor team. 1 Sample Research Proposal Resident: John Smith, PGY2 Research Mentor: Jane Doe, MD, Section of General Internal Medicine Date of Proposal: February 5, 2009 I. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) are the two leading classification systems in the world for mental disorders (Ginter, 2014). The aim of your research proposal by USC.edu must be to justify the need to carry out the specific research study with an organized plan to conduct that research work. An example of what the comparison of the different country models could look like, based on fictional research results, is illustrated in figure 4. Its development has been a deliberate, extensive effort to further harmonize the way mental disorders are defined and categorized, while incorporating the most recent empirical insights from clinical psychology and psychiatry. An additional aspect of self-evaluation specifically applicable to the current study, is awareness of this aforementioned controversy surrounding the DSM-5 and how it should be accounted for in the research procedures. These classification systems offer clear definitions of various mental disorders, incorporating relevant symptomatology and morbidity characteristics, and can be used by clinicians to guide the diagnostic process. Furthermore, there are indications that participants struggle with determining their standpoint on Likert scales with more than 7 answer alternatives (Gregory, 2011). An objective approach by the research team throughout the different stages of the study is a necessity to safeguard the truthfulness of the study’s outcomes. v) Which trial subjects in each treatment group you would include in the final analysis keeping in mind the timing of the insertion of their tympanostomy tubes? In sections 3.3 and 3.4 we explain in more detail how we will determine the strength (visualized by the size of the arrows) and direction (visualized by the colour of the arrows) of the influence of each determinant. (2014). The main aim of our study will be to evaluate what factors contribute towards the adoption and rejection of the DSM-5 amongst clinicians in three European countries, namely France, Germany and the Netherlands. Instead, we focus on specific determinants that Greenhalgh et al. How does Philip Zimbardo’s study influence the issue of imprisonment? Performance measurement for health system improvement: experiences, challenges and prospects. Despite using verification codes to access the online surveys, data will be processed anonymously. In Germany the ICD-10-GM (the German modification of the ICD-10) is the official classification system for the encoding of diagnoses in inpatient and outpatient medical care (Deutsches Institut für Medizinische Dokumentation und Information, 2014). How to write a research proposal in public health”, International Journal of Current Research, 7, (5), 16525-16529. Smith, P.C., Mossialos, E., & Papanicolas, I. Groves, R.M., & Peytcheva, E. (2008). Additional to a cross-country comparison, a cross-discipline comparison will be incorporated in the current study; our second research objective is to examine if tendencies to adopt or reject the DSM-5 differ between clinicians of different clinical disciplines. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. This stakeholder analysis will be collaboratively conducted by our international research team, consisting of researchers from the ‘Ecole des Hautes Études en Santé Publique’ (EHESP) in Rennes (France), Maastricht University in Maastricht (the Netherlands) and Bielefeld University in Bielefeld (Germany). An external agency will be consulted to assess the quality and comprehensiveness of the developed evaluation plan. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, Bureau of. In contrast, the ICD has always used a more simplistic system that merely lists mental disorders alongside medical conditions and other health ailments. Create a space on the title page for committee signatures, If this is the case, we will rephrase statements and conduct additional pilot tests. Depending on the allocation of a grant, a conference might be organized, for which representatives from the DSM, ICD, national professional associations of clinicians, politicians from the national ministries of health, participants from our study and other relevant stakeholders (as identified in the stakeholder analysis) will be invited. Spartan plastics case study. (2000). American Psychiatric Association (APA). In France, how strongly do specific indicators contribute towards either the rejection or adoption of the DSM-5 amongst clinicians? Heterogeneity in definitions, classifications and coding practices of indicators across Member States endangers both the validity of comparisons and the inferences following these comparisons (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2008). Additionally, we set out to investigate if clinicians view it as their task, and therefore their responsibility, to contribute to the usage of a uniform classification system in Europe, and if so, if this influences their tendency to adopt or reject the DSM-5. Although he still did not abandon his previous convictions of polluted air as the medium for contamination, his parametric inferences coupled with his endorsement of Snow’s theory in the report, paved way to the acceptance that cholera may be brought about by polluted water. A common example involving geography is when the researcher aggregates persons to the state level to make comparisons between state policies. (“Epidemiology Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.), (Epidemiology Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words). Due to either lack of knowledge or ignorance they engage in unprotected sex. Next to relevant mental disorders and medical conditions, this multiaxial system incorporates other important diagnostic information such as environmental factors (Axis IV) and level of functioning (Axis V) (Ginter, 2014). Timetable of the current research project (own figure). Determining what specific procedures of data analysis are appropriate, depends on both the research question we want to answer and the data we have available for this purpose (Ellis, 2003). A common example for an analysis using NHANES data is where the unit of analysis is the person while the subpopulation is adults ages 18-64. 2019. Harmonisation of ICD-11 and DSM-V: Opportunities and challenges. An example is the multiaxial system the DSM has been using since the release of its third edition (APA, 1980). The current study adopts such a descriptive approach, as we aim to create a clear picture of the factors that play a role in the tendency to adopt or reject the DSM-5 by presenting country profiles and profiles of clinicians of various disciplines, visualized in the form of our new model. Environmental determinants of an infectious disease 2. – RQ3. ...The Silent Attack of Osteoporosis Thesis Proposal - PhD in Epidemiology. To minimize the amount of non-responders, we will pre-test our survey website; it has to be easily accessible and function properly on various media devices (pc, laptop, tablet). Alternatively, we aim to publish our results in ‘Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research’. We will determine the colour and size of the corresponding arrows and visualize this in 8 additional models, one for each clinical discipline. Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency (CHAFEA). In any given hospital setting it is the patients in the Intensive Care Unit who have higher chances of contracting these types of infections (Bennett, 2010). (2004), i.e. 3rd edition. Advantages of a quantitative research approach include the possibility to incorporate a large number of participants, and the possibility to make substantiated claims about hypothesized relations based on statistical significance levels (Ellis, 2003). This evaluation plan will incorporate key evaluation points and specific evaluation questions, indicators and targets for different stages in the research process. In the European Region, there are around 60 million cases which represent around 8,5 per cent of the adult population. Causation of disease: Though some diseases are caused by genetic factors, most of them result from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. If you find papers matching your topic, you may use them only as an example of work. If a study lacks external validity, the findings may hold true for only a specific research setting (Neumann, 2014). But, you also have the choice of using a ready-made research paper outline template … Social epidemiology is an epidemiology branch that is concerned with the influence of social structures, relationships, and institutions on health. A (post-)positivistic research paradigm assumes the existence of an objective, universal truth, and embraces the assumption that knowledge can be obtained through a process of quantifying concepts, followed by the verification and falsification of hypotheses by conducting statistical analyses (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011). A designated project manager will be appointed to be in charge of project evaluation. ...behaviors by teenagers. (2013). 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