The final step required the embodiment of these principles in a formal international treaty and the creation of an organization to administer them. Successful maintenance and progressive improvement of international postal service require the effective cooperation of all member countries of the UPU. The Postal Service also owes $11 … The security and regularity of the service along certain routes, however, inevitably resulted in an increasing amount of unofficial correspondence being carried. He was assigned in handling all the mails arriving from abroad and destined to various British settlements in North America. This letter is in form of clay tablets bearing messages written in cuneiform (wedge-shaped) script. The radical simplification of postal organization and methods characterizing Hill’s reforms are the key to the speed and economy with which modern postal systems in many countries handle tens of millions of letters daily. Of particular importance were the links maintained from the mid-13th century between the great Italian commercial centres, such as Florence, Genoa, and Siena, and six important annual fairs held in the Champagne area of northern France. This title was changed in 1878 to the Universal Postal Union (UPU), and the basic treaty was renamed the Universal Postal Convention. The great Persian Empire of Cyrus in the 6th century bc also employed relays of mounted messengers, served by posthouses. In the Inca Empire, posthouses were maintained at frequent intervals along the remarkable road network, and a like system probably served the Mayan civilization for more than 1,000 years. Unfortunately, serious obstacles to the free exchange of international mails existed. Private mail delivery operations served the government for a while. Private undertakings that had established legal rights in this field were allowed to continue, but private messenger systems were eventually forced out of business by state competition or were bought out. Credit: United States Postal Service The Postal Service said it has some of the lowest letter-mail postage rates in the industrialized world and continues to offer a great value in shipping. Millennium later, Egypt and Assyria had their postal services. Special event stamps are available only for a limited time. The Department of Posts (DoP), trading as India Post, is a government-operated postal system in India, which is a subsidiary of the Ministry of Communications.Generally called "the Post Office" in India, it is the most widely distributed postal system in the world. There was also a postal link between the Muslim capital, Venice and Constantinople. Based on an exhaustive study of the cost structure of postal operations, it demonstrated conclusively that conveyance charges were an insignificant factor in the total cost of handling a letter. Technical factors delayed progress in opening up longer routes. The world's first postal code system was introduced on July 25, 1941 with a two-digit number system. In 1784 stage coaches began carrying mail between the cities and towns. The latter part of middle age private postal system was created and carried personal mail as well as commercial correspondence. They received 3 million thalers in compensation. Postal services long existed in China since 4000 BC. Rowland Hill formulated proposals on reforming the postal system between 1835 and 1837. London and Bath was the first route. Warren Hastings had taken initiative under East India Company to start the Postal Service in India in 1688. By the end of the century, Britain, many continental European countries, the United States, and India had built up a complex network of such services, allowing the delivery of letters the day after mailing at distances three or four times as great as had been possible with the stagecoach, exceeding 400 miles in some cases. Postal system - Postal system - Postal services in the developing countries: The establishment of efficient and comprehensive postal systems in the developing countries is important internationally as well as from the purely domestic viewpoint. It was used mostly to convey official documents. The speed with which messengers were able to travel during the peak of the administration was not to be rivaled in Europe until the 19th century: it has been claimed that more than 170 miles (270 kilometres) could be covered in a day and a night. On the same year the family was forced to give up its postal monopoly to Prussia. It is a state sponsored series of post roads with interval relay stations. This need was met by the cursus publicus, the most highly developed postal system of the ancient world. Such treaties necessitated the maintenance of detailed accounts between the countries concerned. They introduced a new public service by collecting and delivering mails within the city. In France, Louis XI set up a Royal Postal Service in 1477 employing 230 mounted couriers. The riders would stop at post houses to get a fresh horse or to pass on their packets and dispatches to another messenger for the remaining distance. Stamps are issued in various shapes. However, private carriers did not give up. ... in the mailing of first class mail. Balloon posts, apart from those organized during the sieges of Paris (1870) and Przemyśl (1915), for the most part only carried souvenir mail, owing to the balloons’ uncontrollability. Richard Fairbanks of the Boston became Postmaster of Massachusetts’s Bay Colony. Which Persian king was the husband of Queen Esther? Von Taxis secured the right to carry both government and private mail throughout the empire. The continued decay of the Roman roads, the increasing unwillingness of communities bordering the roads to support the expenses of the system, and the progressive political fragmentation of Europe, however, caused all traces of the Roman postal system to disappear. By the 13th century, connections were maintained between commercial centers of these Italian countries like Florence, Genoa, and Siena and several communities in northern France. The scope of the union’s activities also expanded. Send Mail & Packages Convenient Domestic Shipping. Since the kings of the period were constantly struggling to assert their authority over their unruly feudal vassals, the strong central authority that sustained most postal systems was lacking. The end of the reign of the last Carolingian king in 987 marked the beginning of several centuries of confusion in Europe, in which it is difficult to trace any postal system worthy of the title. This arrangement allows some mails to receive, for little or no surcharge, speedier transmission than by surface, but without the priority of fully surcharged mails. Mounted post boys rode the main routes. Founding father Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general. The Postal Service has the nation’s largest retail network — bigger than McDonald’s, Starbucks and Walmart combined, domestically. U.S. appeals ruling that barred Postal Service changes before election WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The U.S. By the use of public course riders could travel as fast as 170 miles (270 kilometers) in a 24-hour period. On the long-distance continental and intercontinental routes airmail demonstrated its clear superiority over all surface transport. Use Click-N-Ship ® service to pay for postage and print a shipping label from your printer or at a Post Office ™ location. Bhutan issued one with its national anthem on a playable record. The maintenance of the cursus publicus required a high degree of organization; an inspectorial system existed to control its operation and prevent abuse for private ends. They held annual fairs. Since the Champagne fairs were attended by merchants from all over Europe, the postal system provided a valuable international link. The first reflection of this trend in the postal sphere was the establishment of efficient national systems of relay posts under the control of the state. Eventually, an international postal congress met, on September 15, 1874, in Bern. Vehicles. Many corporations or guilds established messenger systems to allow their members to maintain contacts with customers. These reduced rates were perhaps originally intended to favour the spread of education but quickly expanded, under the vigorous pressure of vested interests, to cover all sorts of commercial documents, advertising matter, magazines, etc. Neither of these systems was intended to serve the public. Rapidly advancing computer and data transmission technologies of the late 20th century are being felt far more widely within the postal sector than were previous advances, such as improved roads, the railway, and the airplane. The first American transcontinental airmail flight took place in 1920, but regular service did not begin until 1924. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the U.S. Constitution. While the growing availability of air flight did not affect basic postal organization as profoundly as the railways, its advantages of speed and operational reliability have been exploited in different ways since the 1920s. Rome needs the development of “cursus publicus” meaning public course. A postal service can be private or public, though many governments place restrictions on private systems. The clay tablets were dated as far back as 2000 BC. The admiration of the Greeks was natural since their political divisions inhibited the growth of a coherent postal system, although each city-state possessed its corps of messengers. In 1926 a service between Egypt and Karāchi began and was linked to London in 1929. On the other side of the world, in China, a posthouse service had been started early in the Chou Dynasty (ruled 1122-221 BC). Other European links soon followed. On July 26, 1775, the U.S. postal system is established by the Second Continental Congress, with Benjamin Franklin as its first postmaster general. Duncan Campbell of Boston organized the first domestic service in 1693. He proposed that payments will be based on weight and suggested a penny for each half-ounce. In ˜scal year 2018, the Postal Service recognized 243 heroic employees. Mails in the Roman Empire were carried by public course using light carts that drive through concrete roads. Vestiges continue to exist until 9th century before it became fragmented and fell into disuse. Initially, such letters were relatively few. 1. The Postal Service provides a vital public service that is a part of the nation's critical infrastructure. This system was initially used for the packet service and later applied to … In 1868, however, a plan for a general postal union was put forward by the director of posts of the North German Confederation. Between 1775 and 1815, Britain was at constant war with United States and France. Plus, you can schedule a USPS ® pickup from your home or office. In the middle ages, there were postal services in Europe but none of them are in general use. The invention of printing press increased the amount of mail and made the transport of letter a profitable enterprise. Since the mid-19th century, national postal systems have generally been established as a government monopoly, with a fee on the article prepaid. It was used mostly to convey official documents. He also realized that another major item in the current cost structure—the collection of money payments on delivery—was easily avoidable. Recognized by the UPU, the aerogram is available in most countries. As an American employer, the U.S. An example was set by another conference at Paris two years later, which established the International Telegraph Union. Darius I and Xerxes I Postal Service - Darius I. Thus, the state monopolies expanded their scope, happily combining an improved service to the public with greater profitability. The extent and importance of Venetian business correspondence may be gauged from the fact that in 1320 the king of Persia accorded its couriers the right of free passage throughout his domains. ... you all. The significance of his reforms lies not only in the fact that they brought the post within the means of the mass of the people but also in the less obvious way in which they gave the postal system the technical capacity to deal with the vastly increased demand for postal service that ensued. The then current intricate charging scales based on distance were shown to be irrelevant: they inflated operating costs by requiring a host of clerks to apply them and to prepare complicated interoffice accounts. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Neither of these systems was comprehensive, nor were they intended to serve the public. The main mode of transportation was through the Nile River. In 13th century, Marco Polo described the imperial service having over 25,000 relay stations. In the mid-1970s, the concept of “surface air-lifted” (SAL) mails was developed in conjunction with the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Although the latter enabled postal services to reform or enhance existing services, today’s technologies go further by providing alternatives to the letter in the form of electronic messaging networks and electronic data-processing techniques to improve administrative efficiency. Hill proposed a basic rate of one penny for each half ounce, calculating the “natural cost of distribution” to be slightly less than this. In 1691, the British postal service in London was organized under Thomas Neale, the Deputy Postmaster General. In 1830 mail by rail began to replace horses and coaches. It was nearly a 100 years before Paris started a similar city service and it was rapidly taken over by the government. The fall of the Roman Empire in the west during the 5th century did not completely destroy the cursus publicus. It was not until 1939 that a regular air service across the North Atlantic was launched with the takeoff of the Yankee Clipper, an American seaplane, on May 20. Postal relations between states were the subject of bilateral postal treaties that had multiplied alarmingly during the 19th century. These were first used by the post office in 1784 and rapidly superseded the mounted postboys on the main routes. Diminished service aside, a slimmed-down postal service could have a dramatic effect on the wider economy. He then reopened a government agency. Europe used the medium parchment but it ended in the 15th century when China introduced paper via Asia Minor and Byzantine Empire. He made a solution to postal problems by imposing a uniform postage rate regardless the distance. 1 Airmail: A Brief History The air mail route is the first step toward the universal commercial use of the aeroplane. The consistently high costs of airmail curtailed this trend after the war. In England, the establishment of state posts along the principal roads was accompanied by the suppression, under the royal monopoly, of private and municipal posts, although “common carriers” were still permitted to convey letters on routes not covered by the royal system. On the other hand, the Eastern Empire lasted longer because it was eventually absorbed into the Islamic Kingdom based in Baghdad. Historical references to postal systems in Egypt dated from about 2000 BC. The substitution of one centralized imperial regime for another meant that the cursus publicus could be incorporated into a similar Arabian postal system based in Baghdad. Modern mail is organized by national and privatized services, which are reciprocally interconnected by international regulations, organizations, and international agreements. The UPU has been a specialized agency of the United Nations since 1948. By 1914, when China was admitted, it included almost all independent countries. The pre-Columbian civilizations of America, responding to the same needs as the imperial states of Asia and Europe, also evolved relay systems, limited to foot messengers. The publication in 1837 of Post Office Reform: Its Importance and Practicability, by Rowland Hill (later Sir Rowland Hill), a British educator and tax reformer, is justly regarded as one of the most important milestones in postal progress. Franklin (1706-1790) put … It was implemented on July 1, 1875, when the General Postal Union came into being. The introduction of uniform cheap rates of postage for letters was accompanied by the establishment of even lower tariffs for newspapers (carried free in some countries) and for printed matter (e.g., the British “Book Post” of 1848). With the stagecoaches making possible a general reorganization of the entire system of mail circulation, letters could be delivered the morning after posting in towns more than 120 miles from London. For any returned item bearing a customs form: The Postal Service will, upon request, refund postage and fees on mail returned due to the suspension of service. The Roman Empire area covers the whole Mediterranean. Horses and drivers for the transport of couriers were kept at regular staging posts to provide the so-called carriage express, which gradually developed into an organized system for the exchange of letters. Governments start to insist on controlling mail services. Rome is claimed to have the first well documented postal service which arose under Augustus Caesar around the time of the birth of Christ (Wikipedia, 2007). The service was carefully regulated. When writing evolved in the human world, communications came into existence. While the service did not follow a regularly organized pattern, it was at least reasonably frequent. On the other hand, in France, Louis Xl had set up the Royal Postal Service in 1477. A family, whose Italian name was Tassis, operated the first courier services in the city-states from about 1290. The general postal reforms of the mid-19th century ensured maximum benefit from the technological progress in transport in the great age of the railway and the steamship. When the post office was opened, the postmen, who were called “runners,” ran between officers to deliver letters and parcels. During the mid-1960s the UPU, in response to the continuing increase of aircraft capacity, adopted the policy of maximizing air conveyance of mail. Striking features of the scheme were that letters were prepaid and stamped to indicate place of posting and the time they had been sent out for delivery. The cursus publicus fared better in the Byzantine Empire because its provinces were eventually absorbed into the Islāmic Empire. In the late 15th century, innovation changed European postal services. Russia also shared the postal communications at that time. The chief features of Hill’s system were gradually adopted in varying degrees by other countries throughout the world, first among which were Switzerland and Brazil in 1843. Notable among these was the so-called Butcher Post (Metzger Post), which was able to combine the carrying of letters with the constant traveling that the trade required. However, the last year the Postal Service recorded any profit was 2006, and its cumulative losses since then totaled $83.1 billion as of March 31. . The relay stages of the cursus publicus, established at convenient intervals along the great roads of the empire, formed an integral part of its complex military and administrative system. The rates remained for 25 years after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. Postal Service (USPS) and President Donald Trump late Friday appealed a federal judge's ruling suspending service changes and requiring aggressive steps to ensure ballot deliveries ahead of the November presidential election, the Justice Department said. Romans wrote their letters on wax tablets and on thin sheets of woods. The far-reaching system consisted of relays of couriers who changed horses at relay posts 9 miles (14.5 kilometers) apart. "The U.S. Want to save time and ship from home? National postal services had emerged from Europe and the need to postal services was passing. The postal system was enlarged under the Han Empire (202 BC-AD 220), when Chinese came in contact with the Romans and their postal system. Gibraltar will now become the first country in the world to have a fully electrical postal delivery system. On the same century, the best-known and most efficient postal service operated by the Counts of Thurn and Taxis. In 1680, William Dockwra opened a Penny Post in London. The uncertain political situation did not favour the creation of a regulated postal service, though it necessitated frequent contact between the kings and vassals and among the great princes. A carefully regulated postal service—unprecedented for its standards of speed, frequency, and security—was evolved during this period. By 2nd century, it was the Chinese that first used the paper as a writing material. Russia shared in the general European trend toward the development of postal services in the 13th century. ... the United States also came in first. In 1672 France declared postal services to be a state monopoly under which operating rights were sold. Under the patronage of the Habsburg emperors, they became the organizers of an extensive network of postal routes linking the imperial possessions. Italian business interests were also responsible for the only regular extra-European postal link of this period, between Venice and Constantinople. —Benjamin B. Lipsner, Superintendent of Aerial Mail Service, 19181 When airmail began in 1918, airplanes were still a fairly new invention. He was assigned in handling all the ma… Postal services began in the first half of the 17th century serving the first American colonies; today, the United States Postal Service is a large government organization providing a wide range of services across the United States and its territories abroad. Private postal services emerged to carry mail to all parts of Europe. Which one did Nehemiah serve? By far the most famous and extensive of such systems was that built up by the Thurn and Taxis family, who originally came from Bergamo near Milan, Italy. Carrying private mail was not legalized in France until 1627 and in Britain until 1635. Similar developments in the postal field were delayed by the advent of the American Civil War and the Franco-German War. The Western Roman Empire collapsed 476 BC, but the postal system was not destroyed immediately. Which one established the world's first postal service? On October 9 a “Treaty concerning the Establishment of a General Postal Union” was signed. Message-relay systems of the ancient world, Growth of business correspondence in the Middle Ages, Growth of the post as a government monopoly, International postal reform: the Universal Postal Union, Postal services in the developing countries, Technological progress in postal transport. Corporations and guilds set up their own messengers. While in 1516, Henry Vlll of England appointed a post master to maintain the regular postal service along the roads leading out of London. Aside from stamps that are made in rectangular shapes there are postal stamps made in circular, triangular, and pentagonal. There was still opportunity for private enterprise to succeed by introducing services that were not at that time provided by the state systems. Minister for postal services and transport Vijay Daryanani MP added, “I am pleased that we will be launching the first fleet of fully electric vehicles in Gibraltar and that the Royal Gibraltar Post Office will be the first public postal service in the world to have a fully electric fleet. Prior to World War II, a number of European countries adopted the practice of forwarding letters to distant destinations at no extra cost to the sender (such as British mails sent to most parts of the British Empire). It was also in 1792 that the first regular exchange of mails between United States of America and neighboring Canada happened. Postal Service, like other delivery companies, has experienced some temporary service … The union grew rapidly, increasing its membership to 55 within 10 years. Conditions of acceptance, scales of payment, and timetables were laid down; the route was fixed, and hostels were maintained along the route. The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government and has been responsible for providing postal services in the U.S. since its start in 1775. Despite the disruptive effects of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, great progress was made throughout Europe in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in improving the speed and regularity of postal service and in providing internal delivery services for most of the larger cities. 9. One of the more significant trends of the later Middle Ages was the development of international commerce and, with it, the growth of business correspondence. For individual correspondence, the most practical and inexpensive form of airmail remains the compact aerogram, which was introduced in Britain during World War II as a convenient way of writing to overseas military personnel. Railways in particular had a marked effect on the organization of postal work: instead of merely using trains to carry mailbags more speedily, postal administrations soon introduced the practice of sorting the letters in transit, using specially adapted railway cars. Stamps are made in a three-dimensional image or design of foil, sometimes gold.Switzerland made a stamp partly of lace and wood. In the late 15th century, however, the trend toward improved postal services was reinforced by Gutenberg’s printing press (c. 1450) and the expansion of education. Several routes were amalgamated like from Philadelphia to Newport, Virginia (1737) or New York (1742), Boston to Albany, Baltimore to Annapolis, and Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. He also proved that complex series of rates based on distance were needless. Postal services in the middle age were exclusively used for trade guilds (such as the Metzger Post of Germany served the guild of butchers), merchants of the Hanseatic League, Venice and the Italian city states, universities, and religious houses. He proved that carrying charges were insignificant factors in the total cost of handling mail. Internal postal services extend from capital city, but in 1693 cross posts provided a more direct route. He also suggested the use of prepayment through adhesive stamps and will be sold at post offices. Proof of payment is usually in the form of an adhesive postage stamp, but a postage meter is also used for bulk mailing. Certain experiments had been undertaken before World War I, such as airmail service between Hendon, on the northwestern outskirts of London, and Windsor in 1911 to mark the coronation of George V and flights between Paris and Bordeaux in 1913. The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels. Hill’s solution was a uniform rate of postage, regardless of distance, and prepayment of postage by means of adhesive stamps sold by the post office. Although the modes of transport made it easier but the national postal service underwent revolutionary change. Postage stamp collecting directory & philatelic guide. The postage rates were increased to finance the war. Franz von Taxis served as postmaster to the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian I from 1489 and to Philip I of Spain from 1504. It consists of a sheet of lightweight paper suitably folded and gummed on all sides. Some stamps are issued in the shapes of fruit by Sierra Leone and Tonga. ; the oldest postal system in the world. Way back November 1639, the first postal service was established in America. Commemorative stamps are issued along with definitive stamps. The postal service to France provided a major international link for commerce and news. Institutional postal systems that developed during the later Middle Ages also conveyed letters between private persons, with or without official sanction and for a substantial fee in either case. The two Greek historians, Herodotus and Xenophon, wrote the detailed descriptions about the postal network. Early postal history. The family business lasted for over 420 years and the last hereditary Grand Master of the Posts died in 1871. Though organized as a self-sustaining quasi-governmental enterprise, … The first true postal codes date to the first half of the 20th century, and the first country to introduce them was Ukraine. Of Spain from 1504 historians, Herodotus and Xenophon and delivering mails within the city service first postal service in the world. Progressive improvement of international commerce resulted to in need of business correspondence organizers of an extensive network of routes. 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